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And if, at any time, for fome particular reafon, they admitted a foreign religion in- to their city, fuch as that of Cybele, or the Idean Goddefs, the rites were performed under the infpedion of the Roman magi- ftrate ; nor, even in his time, he fays, when the manners were fo much changed for the worfe, did any Roman difguife himfelf to a£t thofe ridiculous mummeries that were aded by the priefts of Cybele*. But, tho' I think the Halicarnaffian is miftaken in fuppofing that Romulus intro- duced a new religion into Latium, I muft believe what he relates of his inftituting feafts and feftivals in honour of the Gods, [ Sacrifices, and priefts, more, fays he, than ever were in any new city or (late, (no lefs than fixty, according to Terentius Varro, who prefided over the public religion), be- fides thofc who took care of the private re- ligion of families * ; and whatever was ♦ Lib. And indeed, being fo young when he formed the Roman ftate, I fliould have believed him fomething more than man, if the Halicarnaflian had not told us that he confulted with his grandfather Nu- mitor, and was guided by the wifdom of his age. And he has mention- ed one of the civil inftitutions of Numa, which I think was of confiderable confe- quence, but is omitted by Livy : For it tended to promote that, by which only a virtuous community can fubfift j I mean a- griculture. In this manner were Plo- tinus and his fcholar Porphyry exalted, a3 I have elfewhere obferved *. How imperfed anf man's knowledge of philofophy^ or of aoy fcience, muft be, who does not fo much as know what fclence is, muft be evident to every man : And indeed it appears to be abfolutely ridiculous to feek after fcien far as to iky/ that the,diyifipa ipta^ bus and ipecics is an ardfid^iiuvu^^ of things, which we malce fiir our mon tafy comprehenfion of thc Mi^^t aild Aat therefore ail giturals ait lsreatnine«! Plato has taken the whole compound' togetfier, and confidered it as making only one Nature and one Subftance, confifting of different parts, of which one is the Intelledlual, another thfe Irafcible, ^and a third the Concupifcent ; whereas we are truly compofed of two Natures or Subftances, perfedtly diftin£t from one an- other, though intimately connefted at lead in this life, viz. So that what is commonly thought to be a violent paradox, that the pulchrum and honejium is the only good of man, is nothing but a plain truth, neceflarily re- * See one paflage in lib. But Socrates never profefled to d believe the popular religion : He, on the contra] pra^lifed all the duties of it, and recommended it to his followers ; nor do I think that any philofbph Whatever his private opinion may be^ is entitled to i any thing againft the religion of his country, and p ticularly againd that fundamental article of the religi of all countries, — the Providence of God over all '. 3D The Origin and Book II human- artift, who is the author of thi works he makes, but not of the material of thefe works, which are furniihed hie by Nature: Whereas genuine Thcolog; teaches us, that all things are originally froa God, and the Matter as well as the Form o this Univerfe ; fo that he is not only the fid Mover, but in every refpcfl the fir ft Caufeo all things in the Univerfe, And what fur prifes me very much is, that Ariftotle not on ly does not derive Body from this firft Caufe but not even Mind» neither the Intellec tual Mind, nor the Animal, nor the Vege table, nor even that Mind, which, accor ding to his philofophy, animates the fub ftances commonly called inanimate, and i what he calls Nature^ producing all th movements of thofe bodies.
They had no wailings and lamentations for the fufferings of their Gods, fuch as the Greeks had, nor any Bacchic rites or vigils of men and women together in the temples. Now, it is in this way that I account for the difference betwixt the later Greek religion, and the antient Greek religion imported into Latium by the Greek colo- nies who fettled there, one of them, and the principal, 17 generations before the Trojan w^ar, when I am perfuaded the Greek theology was much purer than it was in the days of Homer. And as to Romulus, whom he praifes fo much, I think he mud have been one of the moft extraordinary men that ever li«- ved ; and I can almoft forgive a great fcho- lar, who lived foon after the reftoration of letters, and who gave himfelf the claflical name of Pomponius Laetus^ for building an altar to him. one of the few particulars he mentions of I the civil adminiftration of Romulus, (hould ^ be a fad not true, and which reflects fuch [ difhonour upon the origin of his nation;*— f I mean the making his afylum a fanduary [ for fugitive flaves, ■ Livy is more full in the account he gives [ Us of the religious inftitutions of Numa j but not fo full and fo accurate even there 12© The Origin and Book t as the Halicarnaflian, who has told us that Numa divided the minifters of the Gods among the Romans into eight claf- fes *, the office of each of which he has diftindly explained. And I think the bell ihing he can do is, what the philofophers of the Alexao- drine fchool, Plorhius, Porphyry, and Ae reft of them, did \ which was to apply to that fublime philofophy above meniiooed, which raifed them above all the cares of this world ; and, joined with that cathartic diet (as ihey called it) which they pradifed, not only prepared them for a better life after this, but exalted them to a commu- nication with fuperior ifi Eelligences even during this life. Before 1 come to fpeak of xh^Jlile of his philofophy, I will make fome Obfervations upon the matter of each of the branches of it, beginning, as Arillotle be- Tu E Origin and gins, with Logic» the fubjeft of which, aa Ariftofle tells us m ihc beginning of the jimfytics^ h to let us know what fcicnce or drmnnftration is. the to xa Aor, which is only guided and directed by un- derftandingand fcience, whereas Plato, fol« lowing Socrates, has made Virtue to be alto- gether fcience; but that he has diftinguifhed, much better than ]flato has done, betwixt our animal and intellectual nature ; — ^a (ji- ftindion, upon which the whole philofophy of man depends. It is from Ariftotle's [fyftem of Morals ' that I have learned that the only good of the intelledlual fubftance in us, and which only entitles us to the appellation of men^ is beauty. Sec alfo what I have further faid upon this iiihjeft, vol. But thefe later fi Sioa of Deities he feems to think not eyei ufeful for the purpofe intended by them and accordingly in his books of Polit] he has faid very little of religion, onl; mentioning it twice, as I remember, bu \yilhout faying any thing more of it thai that there fliould be pricfts in a ftate, am that a tyrant, in order to preferve bis au thority, ought to appear to he reltgiom How different in this refpe£l the Polity c thctis, and retire to Chalets^ becaute he faid he won not give an opportunity to the Athenians of finni twice agalnft philofophy, referring to their condemi tion of Socrates.
This they did upon the princi* pfes of Greek philofophy, after that phi- lofbphy was introduced among them et lib. — This ivork of the Halicarnafjian^ the mojl elegant compojition in the dida^ic fiile.-^Many errors in the text to be cor- refied. This is fo remote, not only from our prac- tice, but from our ideas of the pronuncia- tion of language, that there are fome a*- mong us, who do not believe that the Greeks, or any other people, fpoke in that way. And I could truft more to what he told ine of the mufic of the Iroquois language, that he is blind, and I am perfuaded his ear for mufic is mucli the better for t^iat reafon ; and, befides that, he prac- tifes mufic very much, and is a performer upon feve- ral indruments.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. he beginnings of the kingdoms nuhereof voe knoiv notf vue learn from phe Roman hiflory. This he has done, firft, in his account of the reign of Romulus, whofe inftitutions both civil and religious, and particularly his civil inftitutions, he has explained at great length, and with ve- ry proper obfervations upon them, and comparifons betwixt them and the infti- tutions of other nations *. — All the njoeal founds pojftble^ in that language. — How there came to be 7 vowels reckoned by the Greek grammarians.
Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. — \the infiitutions and manners by vuhich they became fo great i^alfo the vices by vuhich they fel L-^Comparifon betivixt the Roman hifiory and the hiflory of modern na*^ iv The CONTENTS. — Pqffage from Miltpn ontl:atfuhje6l.^-^fthoft who have ^written the hijlory of Rome^ be** ginning ivith Livy.^-^His plan very extenfive. I will only mention a few of them, be- ginning with the firft he mentions, name- ly, the connexion Romulus eftabliflied be- twixt the nobles and the lower fort of peo- ple by the means of Patronftiip and Client- fliip, which our author very juftly cele- brates as an excellent contrivance for con- nefl:ing together, as much as was poffible, two orders of men, whofe intereft appeared to be diredtly oppofite ; and he obferves, that it far exceeded any thing of the [kind praftifed by other nations ; and to it he aicribes what otherwife, I think, is unac- countable, that, for 630 years, in all the dif- putcs that were during that time, betwixt * Lib. — Of the variety qf confonants in Greek ; — the fyllables confequently very various.
Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. But, before the people determined, the fenatc became au Elores in inctrtum evenium comitiorum^ Chap. 109 This form of govern tnent is much the fame with the heroic government of the Greeks at the time of the Trojan war, as defcribed by Homer ; and 1 hold it to be the moft natural of all governments, by which the beft men, who are by God and Nature de- ftined to govern, do accordingly govern^ but not. And accordingly we are informed, that Lyqur- gus, after r^^ulating every thing elfe in the Lacedemonian policy, wanted laft of all to lay reftraints upon the won\en, and to prefcribe a life for them as well as for the men; but be could not efiediuate it, and fo was obliged to leave one half of his citizens without manners or difcipltne. And in this refped he prefers, I think J very juftly, the policy of Romulus to that of Lycurgus, whofe citizens pradifed arms only, while the neceflaries of life were fupplied to them by the labour of others *• The confequence of this life of the Roman foldier muft have been, that he was more able to endure all toils and hardfliips of li- ving, better than the Spartan, and had the ufe of the fpade and of other inftruments of * Lib. But, with all thefe imperfec*- tions, thofe commentaries mud be carefully ^udied ; and out of them, and of the text of Ariftotle, this mod valuable philofophy jnua be dug like diamonds out of a mine.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. without the confent and approba- tion of tjic people. The confequence of which was,, that the ftate of Spana^ the beft formed of any, I think, next to that of Rome, was ruined by the luxury and vanity of the women, which introduced wealth among them, and by that means ruined the ftate, as the oracle had foretold f. For this work not only a perfe Q; know- ledge of the common Greek language ie neceflary, but we muft know alfo the lan- guage of this philofophy.